The archaeological revolution
starts from Egypt
("The impossible pyramid")
by Mauro Quagliati

The official reconstruction of the ancient history of mankind appears more and more unsatisfactory at the sight of numerous archaeological proofs.  How long are we waiting for a revision of orthodox theories?

The news media has baptized 'Egiptomania' the proliferate in the libraries of publications dedicated to the mysteries of  Ancient Egypt. The keepers of orthodoxy sleep calm sleeps, as they are convicted that certain fanciful and odd theories meet the favors of the public thanks to the atmosphere of mysticism that pervades the end of the millennium.  In reality readers are little informed on the claimed scientific solidity of the traditional theories, which don’t furnish convincing explanations on the methods used for the construction of the big temples of Giza, as the Egyptians of the IV Dynasty (around 2600 BC.), to whom the paternity of the biggest and most sophisticated opera in stone of the history is attributed, didn’t leave any written testimony on the subject. Two technical problems are crucial: the lift of enormous blocks and the cut and polishing of the stones.

We are going to examine the antithetic conclusions drawn from two "orthodox" authors: the Egyptologist Georges Goyon in the book The Secret of the Big Pyramids, the physicist Kurt Mendelssohn in The enigma of the pyramids.
In Goyon’s opinion it is sufficient to place in opera, plane on plane, sloping horizontal layers (courses) of masonry beginning from the planned basis, while the other believes that it is necessary to build a preliminary nucleus in terraces (with the walls inclined toward the inside like the pyramid of Zoser at Saqqara), on which to anchor the following filling that defines the form of the pyramid.
This is the only way, Mendelssohn tells, founding on the observation of the collapsed pyramid of Meidum, that allows the builders to place a mark on the summit to point in order to give the correct inclination to the edges. In the opposite case the angle of inclination should be calculated at the basis with the accuracy of a fraction of degree to be sure of installing correctly the vertex (fig.1-2).

Figure 1Figure 1. With the means at their disposal, the Egyptians wouldn't be able to build a pyramid correctly from the ground, since a wrong alignment of the edges can't be corrected in a subsequent building phase. A little error of 2° only would take to a phase-difference of 15 meters at the vertex of one of the Giza pyramids.
Figure 2Figure 2. A step structure always constitutes the core of a true pyramid. Its buttresses give stability and a back-sight, or a countersign, put on the top, served to align in a correct way the edges of the pyramid.
This, however, might not be a problem for the creators of the Great Pyramid, whose basis is constituted by 4 equal sides with less than 0.1% of tolerance, 4 straight angles with a margin of few seconds of degree, and it is oriented toward the geographical north with an error of 3' of degree. Mendelssohn recognizes that the big pyramids couldn’t be only the tombs of the pharaohs, but he admits that the Egyptians of the III millennium b.C., even if they were formidable architects, were awful mathematical; in fact the famous ratio of 2p between the perimeter of the basis and the height would be a casual result (fig.3).

Figure 3Figure 3. The amazing precision with which the ratio between height and perimeter in the Great Pyramid represents the squaring of the circle 1/2p, was probably due to the fact that the Egyptians must have misured long horizontal distances making a cylinder rotate and counting the number of its revolutions. In this way,  they would have reached the trascendental number p = 3,141... without realizing it.
He believes, besides, that a voluntary manpower of about 70,000 people (made up of specialized permanent workmen and seasonal peasants) was employed in the construction of various pyramids at the same time.  But he doesn’t indicate any solution to the technical problems of the yard, trying to imagine the use of rolls and inclined planes for the transport of the blocks and levers for their lifting. On this subject, Goyon has instead clear ideas. He rejects firmly some solutions proposed by other colleagues in the past, who provide the use of machines in series as winches of lifting, with pulleys and freight elevator of wood, or the chimerical "oscillating elevator" (fig.4), whether because there is no track of pulleys or wheels among the archaeological finds, or because such methods would be too slow.

Figure 4Figure 4. Oscillating elevator.
It is also to discard the use of rolls of wood in large scale (without metallic hoopings) to let the blocks roll, inefficient on sandy ground, moreover in a country poor of resistant lumber suitable to that purpose. On the contrary, he claims that it was sufficient to pull the blocks on drags of wood, very familiar sleighs for the Egyptians of the Middle Reign (fig.5), along ascending slightly steep ramps (about 3° of inclination, 5% of slope) and covered of wet clay in order to make them slippery.

Figure 5Figure 5. Transport of a giant statue. From a tomb figuration of the XII dynasty.
But the famous ramp couldn’t be perpendicular to the monument, otherwise, when construction is completed (at 147 m of height), it would occupy a length of 3 km on the plain of Giza and a triple volume of the pyramid itself. Therefore it would become a gigantic opera, yet more onerous, to be realized through gigantic blocks of stone, not certainly with loose terrain. Then, at first sight, it appears convincing the idea of Goyon to build a winding ramp (fig.6), that is a rilevate of bricks that it develops in a curl form for 3 km, leaning over the walls already constructed (fig.7).

Figure 6Figure 6. Winding ramp proposed by  Goyon.
Figure 7Figure 7. Section of the great pyramid with the winding ramp made of bricks.
So one has the advantage to build the ramp only one time (in the other way it needs to rebuild the clearing of the ramp at every course), but the disadvantage to prevent the view of the alignment of the edges.  At this point we need to remember that the great part of the about 2,300,000 blocks of limestone and sandstone which constitute the Great Pyramid of Giza have, on an average, a volume of 1 cubic meter (equivalent to almost 3 tons of weight), but, surprisingly, with the height of the construction the dimensions increase to 10-15 t (NOTE 1), and the King’s Chamber, placed at 45 m of height, is realized with megaliths of 50-70 t.  So, Goyon tries to legitimate his theory with the calculation.

Figure 8
Figure 8. Analysis of the forces acting on the sleigh.

In figure 8 it is schematized a ramp inclined of an angle a, with the weight force P of the block divided into its tangential and perpendicular components. The force T necessary to apply the motion is given by the component of the weight along the inclined plane plus the force of attrition (proportional to the force which flattens the sleigh on the surface) which, for the low inclination (a= 3° 30’), results prevalent. m is the coefficient of attrition equal to 0.25, even optimistic considered that it consists of wood slithering on clay (notice that, for the grazing attrition of a wheel of locomotive on rail, it is assumed m= 0.3):

T= P sin a + m P cos a = 0.06 P + 0.25 P = 0.31 P

Furthermore, one can estimate the force that every employee can presumably practice in the drawing, constantly for a long period of time: a value between 10 and 15 kg . For a block of 40 t it results a draught of 12 t, that, divided among workmen with the average force of 12 kg each, it yields about 1000 persons.  But the brilliant Goyon perceives that they are objectively too many  (for problems of maneuver and overload of the ramp) and he prefers to accept a minimum coefficient of attrition or even to suppress it (textually, pag.81), in this way reducing the force to only 2.5 t, and the manpower to 200 men. Following his reasoning, if the plane is horizontal, it suffice to give a little push to the block to see it levitate on this magic slippery ramp. In this way, also the transport of the "smaller" blocks of 3 t results much easier: 20 men instead of 80. Here it is how modern science interprets a bewildering enigma of human civilization (subtitle of the opera).  But it’s not enough. Goyon must reduce the number of the workers in each drawing team because otherwise they couldn’t turn around the elbow curve of the ramp which, with a width of 17 m, furnishes an useful space of maneuver of about 15-20 m. Moreover, the ramp would be built with uncooked bricks, that is clay mixed with straw and dried to the Sun, strengthened with traverses of wood to confer resistance to traction to the rilevate, according to a constructive technique (already known by the Sumerians) documented in the New Reign during the XIX dynasty, 1000 years after the age of the pyramids.  Therefore the 1500-1800 men necessary to carry a block of 70 t, first can’t turn at straight angle (divided in 15 rows, they should however develop the ropes for 100 m in straight line, as there are no pulleys), second they produce an ulterior distributed overload, greater than 100 t, extremely serious for a structure, whose safety should be calculated with the methods prescribed in geotechnical engineering for the so-called ’armed land’. In fact the continual wetting of the surface induces infiltrations in the body of the opera and the bricks assume the plastic consistence of the damp clay.
All of this appears even more improbable, given the phenomenal rate of construction transmitted to us through classical sources. Herodotus, the Greek historian of the V century BC, in his Histories, refers that pharaoh Cheops forced 100,000 of his subjects to work as slaves to the construction of his tomb, during the period of flood of the Nilus (3 months in a year). The work lasted 30 years (of which 20 for placing the blocks) and it was carried out with systems of armors in form of steps, using machinery constituted by short beams. The Egyptologists consider these assertions, which are the only historical connection between the IV dynasty and the Great Pyramid, like absolute truth, when in reality they are doubtful voices reported orally by priests lived 2000 years after.
For example, Goyon is satisfied because his reconstruction would confirm the history of Erodotus, provided considering the sleighs as the famous 'machines'. According to him it is acceptable that, working continually every day for 20 years, 12 hours a day, one succeed to set in opera about 2,300,000 cubic meters of stone at the rate of 355 cubic meters a day, that is an average of 1 drawing every 2 minutes; while it‘s not acceptable that they worked only during the summer pause with a quadruple rate of 2 blocks/min. According to his calculus it would be sufficient a manpower of 20,000 men, of which, only among those working on the pyramid, about 5000 employed to extract the stones, 2000 employed in the drawing (not realistic, as one can see), 700 bricklayers laying in opera. Even in the more favorable circumstance we must imagine the ramp that resists for all its life to hundredths of daily solicitations of mobile loads dragged with an infallible organization. And above all wondering on the technical ability of the posers of the stones who in few minutes must decide the correct collocation on the basis of the plan, articulate perfectly the internal chambers handling blocks of tens of tons, everything made with unknown tools.
  In other passages, the priests of Eliopolis tell Herodotus that the predinastic Egyptian period had lasted for the time that the Sun employs to rise two times from the position in which it sets; this, interpreted to the light of the phenomenon of precession of the equinoxes, means about 40,000 years (NOTE 2).
And so, how much of the classical sources can be considered reliable?  What is conformed to the mental schemes of the archaeologists is accepted, while what is extraneous is considered a literary fiction. Think, for example, at the history of Atlantis described in the Timaeus and in the Critias of Plato. The Greek philosopher claims with precision that a great civilization lived 9000 years before his age in a territory large as Minor Asia [Turkey] that stretched out of the Mediterranean Sea, that means in the authentic Ocean across which another continent could be reached. The orthodox researchers, instead, say that he made a decuple mistake in the dimensions and in the dating, and he had joked on the collocation. In reality his Atlantis was the Isle of Thera in the Aegean Sea, destroyed by a volcanic eruption around the 1500 BC, as it has been confirmed lately by a televisive documentary and by the recent book Atlantis the rediscovered continent. This evident forcing is clearly sponsored by the archaeological official community for his convenience. But the main problem is that, for convenience, they avoid to objectively examine some technological anachronisms, discarding them as anomalies of the dominant theory. That is exactly the contrary of what a scientist should do when he finds the proofs that put in doubt a preceding hypothesis. Is it believable that a civilization in the age of the copper has accumulated 21 million tons of stones in approximately 1 century, of which 12 million only at Giza, realizing something that completely differed from what was ever realized before and after? The Egyptologists reply that only during the IV dynasty the centralized Egyptian state allowed the exploitation of a so enormous working obedient force, and they find in the constructions of the III dynasty the technical progress that concluded with the perfection of Giza. In reality the question is not the number of the workers, but their technological equipment. For what concerns the sudden evolution of Egyptian engineering, let us examine the naive observations of Mendelsshon in the following part.
In about 2700 BC the pharaoh Zoser (III dynasty) builds in Saqqara the first pyramid at terraces, realized with small and manageable stones. Afterward the collapse of the pyramid of Meidum is noted, in which the external filling, badly anchored, skidded on the inner nucleus. In about 2650 BC at Dahshur, with Snefru (IV dynasty, the father of Cheops) much bigger pyramids are planned: the one with double inclination (52° at bottom, 43° at top, 3.6 million tons of mass, 102 m of height) and the red pyramid (with the faces at 43° stable, M=4×10^6 t, h= 101 m). These last ones are realized with larger blocks than in the past, and they're badly squared. That fact involves the birth, in the mass of the construction, of sensitive lateral tensions which must be compensated inclining toward the inside the stratums of masonry, and holding low [reducing] the inclination of the walls.
In order to correct such defects, the next generation, after 2550 BC, decides to undertake the operas using larger and perfectly squared blocks, in this way, thanks to the perfect adherence of the courses (sewn [joined] together with the tolerance of 0.2 mm), they develop prevalently vertical tensions, and they can then return to the best inclination of 52° degrees with the more massive pyramid of Cheops (M= 6.2×10^6 t, h= 147 m) which, however, still maintains a refined internal inclination (fig.9).

Figure 9Figure 9. In order to give more stability, the rows of building materials in the pyramid of Khufu were placed with a slightly concave course in respect of  the vertex of the pyramid.
Presuming that the Egyptian science of constructions had exclusively an empirical basis, without any mathematical theory to calculate the pressures, one wonders on how they succeeded in dimensioning the particulars of the internal chambers at the third attempt. The denticulate ceiling (already present at Dahshur) of the Great Gallery and the ceiling of the King’s Chamber  (NOTE 3) are stressed by a weight never tried until then. And the constructive particulars of the inside denote a skill in moving blocks of tens of tons in narrow spaces, with small manpower.  Under the succeeding Chefren they perceive that the work is yet better if the basis of the second pyramid of Giza (M=5.3×10^6 t, h= 140 m) is built with monoliths of granite of a hundred of tons each. But, at the same time, the technical tools used by the Egyptians remained the same objects of wood and copper used since the I dynasty (3100 BC), in manifest contrast with the facility of execution of the megalithic monuments of the IV dynasty.
Studying little models of wood found in the tombs of the New Reign, Osvaldo Falesiedi has recently attempted to solve this problem, realizing lifting machines based on the modified principle of the "cradle" (fig.4), enthusiastically received by the Egyptian Museum of Turin. That would cast a new light on the story of Erodotus, but, the model proposed (fig.10) for the positioning of the blocks in the chamber of the King, hasn’t been tested at real dimensions, it's very inefficient (the weight rises of 20 cm every double oscillation) and, above all, it’s not clear where such an armor should be mounted during the building of the pyramid (the steps are wide few tens of centimeters.).

Figure 10Figure 10. Machine suggested by Osvaldo Falesiedi.
 With the pyramid of Menkaura, small (M= 0.6×10^6 t, h= 65 m) but perfectly realized with blocks of pink granite, the age of the wonders terminates. One of its internal chambers, directly excavated in the underground, is surmounted by a slope roof formed by enormous slabs, almost crunched against the overseeing bedrock. Therefore they must have been raised from the bottom, in a space only (4×2.5) m wide.
The following V and VI dynasty, up to 2300 BC., built their funeral monuments at Abu Sir and Saqqara, with very bad results. Officially, these heaps of rubble would testify the sudden breakup of the organizational and constructive Egyptian ability.

How to explain, moreover, the sophisticated results obtained in the processing of the stones? The primitive copper drill are just sufficient to engrave and dig a sedimentary rock like the limestone, with a patient work.  While suitable tools for the geometric squaring of large blocks haven’t been found. One should use a saw long and rigid enough (perhaps of bronze, unfortunately not available in the Ancient Reign) and an abrasive like the quartz sand, in order to obtain a result similar to the one obtained, for example today, in the cut of the marble (using a flat wire saw and emery). Yet the ancient Egyptians worked with great ease granite and diorite, igneous rocks that are among the hardest stones existing in nature, constituted by a mixture of different minerals among which quartz. It is certainly possible to break the rock forcing a natural fissure with a wedge of wood that swells impregnating of water. But here we are speaking about millimetrical cuts. The diorite can be processed not even with the iron; despite it has been delicately modeled in the splendid statue of Chefren, presumably with a harder tool. In petrography, the discipline that classifies the physical characteristics of the minerals, the parameters which measure the difficulty in sawing a rock for attrition attest that, on an average, the sandstone is 2 times harder than the compact limestone; granite, basalt and diorite are 4 times harder. Today's technology, to cut in an efficient way blocks of granite, uses, as abrasive, powder of diamond or silica carbide (SiC, a synthetic mineral similar to the diamond). We must remember some elements on the scale of relative hardness of minerals, that goes from 1 to 10:  2= chalk, 7= quartz, 8= emery, 9= carborundum, 10= diamond.
Thus, it is impossible to know how the supposed sarcophagus of Cheops has been processed.  This parallelepiped of granite, engraved externally in a perfect way, has been excavated inside in a way that baffled the Egyptologist of the XIX century Flinders Petrie: they must have used a rotating perforating cylinder, on which they would have practiced an enormous pressure, greater than 1 t. As Colin Wilson highlighted in From Atlantis to the Sphinx, Christopher Dunn demonstrated, with modern tools, that different granite surfaces worked in the antiquity are flat at 1/50 of millimeter, and that the tools used in the perforation were more efficient than those of today. Analyzing the spiral of cutting on some "carrots" (cylinders produced by the boring) of granite found at Giza, he can calculate the speed of penetration of the rotating drill in the rock: 2.5 mm at turn, against the 2/1000 of mm at turn excavated by a modern drill, that functions at 900 turns/ minute. This can’t be obtained, obviously, with a cylinder of copper operated at hand and quartz sand, as the official Egyptologists would like to be. Dunn suggests a technology based on the vibrations at high frequency (a sort of hammer tire which chugs at the frequency of the ultrasounds), compatible with the microscopical investigation conducted on a hole practiced in the granite: the drill had cut more quickly the quartz, than the feldspate (tender mineral). Obviously, a similar technology isn’t achievable with the means of 4500 years ago. A vast production of vases made of diorite, basalt and quartz found at Saqqara and at Naqada, dated back to a predinastic age (4000 BC), is even more inconceivable. Various cupels are engraved with very clear inscriptions 0.16 mm thick (produced with very resistant tips of 0.12 mm). Vases, craters and other common objects have rounded and shaped with symmetry in a way that can be obtained only using a lathe; they present a perfectly polished surface, almost shiny. A lens of crystal is so perfect to seem mechanically grinded. Some containers have an elegant lengthened and gossamer neck, and they are internally hollow: this means that the rock has been excavated from outside, through an opening that doesn't even allow the passage of a finger, an operation that even today is simply impossible. A significant footstep ahead would be to reconsider, at least, the metallurgical knowledge commonly attributed to the Egyptians, contradicted by some objects of bronze and by a foil of iron found in a channel of the Great Pyramid.  These, discovered in the XIX century, were "lost", and they jumped out from the underground of a museum in the 1993. According to ancient traditions, the builders of the pyramids left tools of iron and weapons which didn’t rust, and glass which bent over without breaking, and strange magic formulas.

Figure 11. Foil of iron found in the masonry of the pyramid of Khufu

Typically, who searches answers to anomalies of this kind is an independent researcher, with an open mental attitude. Practitioners in disciplines different from archaeology address directly the vast public, with their divulgative essays, because the academic Egyptology move them away from the scientific acknowledgment, despises them like fools, ignorant of the fundamentals of history and archaeology. In reality a bulk of scientific proofs is being accumulated, that mines deeply the preconceived ideas on the history of Ancient Egypt and, indirectly, of the human civilization in general. The simple fact that no one, for a century, has criticized what is taught on the books of history, regarding the age of the pyramids, doesn't involve that it is the definitive truth. On the contrary, it's arrived the moment to introduce a new study hypothesis for the prehistoric scenery, that succeeds to resolve a series of "enigmas".
 In the ’90 a team of studiouses guided by the Egyptologist John West attempted to put in doubt the official dogma. The geologist Robert Schoch noticed an experimental evidence that has always been under everyone’s eyes: the body of the Sphinx and the adjacent Temple of the valley of Chefren were eroded by the rain.

The Temple of the valley
Figure 12. A view of the Temple of the valley of Chefren

  The famous half-man half-lion statue was sculpted deepening a quarry in the plateau of Giza, that is a sedimentary stratification of different limestones. All the buildings made of stone of the Egyptian civilization present usual signs of eolian erosion: the sand brought by the wind engraves more deeply the tender rock, in a uniform way. The result is a horizontal scheme: for example a front of stratified rock becomes a succession of prominences (compact rock) and sockets (tender rock). The sides and the walls of the pit of the Sphinx are the only Egyptians monuments which present a pattern of vertical weathering too, with shapes rounded and deeply engraved (up to 2 m), typical of the continual action of intense precipitations that overturned in cascade down the sides. Naturally the "serious" Egyptologists, after the first irrational reaction directed to refuse the evidence, have striven to find little persuasive alternative explanations: the cause would be the periodic flood of the Nilus (but isn't the plateau of Giza raised?) or the infiltrations of humidity to the interface sand-limestone. West’s observations arouse sensation because in the last 4500 years the Sphinx passed 3000 of them buried under the sand, so it was protected from the usual atmospheric agents in a desertic climate. Instead in order to find rains of such intensity to legitimate the heavy degrades of the body, you need to go back to the pluvial period that characterized the North Africa between 7000 BC and 11000 BC, at the end of the last glaciation.

The erosion of the Sphinx
Figure 13. The vertical erosion present on the Sphinx

Additionally, the funerary Temple of the valley, attributed to Chefren, was realized with the blocks extracted from the pit of the Sphinx, recognizable by the stratigraphy and by the typical erosion. These ones are limestone monoliths yet bigger than those used for the pyramids: some achieve the volume of 100 cubic meters and a weight of 260 t. Blocks like those, more of 3 m high, have been squared in the pit and then raised in vertical, before having been put in opera. That is really inconceivable if you think that today exist only 3 or 4 cranes that are able to lift a load greater than 200 t (for comparison think about the cranes that steers the containers in the port of Genoa, which tolerate a maximum nominal load of 60 t).

The Temple of the valley
 Figure 14. The funerary Temple of the valley

As Graham Hancock notices in Fingerprints of the Gods, the megalithic architecture of the Temple in many points resembles the typical "puzzle" composition that one can observe in the walls of Machu Picchu and Sacsahuamàn in Peru (here blocks of 300 t lie).

The walls ofSacsahuamàn
Figure 15. The walls of Sacsahuamàn, in Peru

The ruins of Machu Picchu
Figure 16. The ruins of Machu Picchu

Even that little remaining in the coating of the great pyramids, often reutilized in the Middle Ages as material of construction, highlights the refined technique of embed polygonal blocks with irregular edge joins.  Unfortunately we will never know if also the coating of white limestone of the Great Pyramid, today almost all absent, was weathered by the signs of the rain. The complex Second-pyramid-Sphinx-Temple of the Sphinx-Temple of the valley, closely interconnected, is attributed as a whole to the pharaoh Chefren and dated around 2500 BC, exclusively basing upon contextual signs. The Temple in the Valley was full of statues of the pharaoh when it was excavated, while on the walls of the columns no hieroglyphs are engraved. The face of the Sphinx should be the portrait of the son of Cheops, and instead it doesn't resemble absolutely the one of his famous statue, but denotes, instead, different racial somatic outlines. It is asserted that the head of the Sphinx (well preserved), was sculpted for first, and extracted from a stratum of limestone much more resistant than the immediately inferior one that forms the body (heavily degraded). This one would be so brittle that only 3 centuries after the construction integrations of bricks of the anterior paws were necessary. In reality, as it is evident to whoever observes the Sphinx by side, the head is disproportionately small in respect to the body:  it is an extraneous element resculpted much more later, probably when the pristine head (of lion?) was then unrecognizable because of the erosion. Moreover Thomas Dobecki, geophysicist collaborating with West, through geosismic analysis, has highlighted that the superficial alteration of the limestone penetrates in the body for 0.9 m in the back part and 2.4 m in the anterior one, demonstrating that they were sculpted at thousand years of distance one from the other. The geology confirms something by which, oddly, Egyptologists like Gaston Maspero, August Mariette, Flinders Petrie were convicted, at the beginning of the century, and it's the fact that the Sphinx was already ancient at the time of Chefren, that was the renovator of it. This is certified by the Sphinx Stela, erected by Tutmosi IV pharaoh of the XVIII dynasty, and erroneously interpreted. After having cleared the mythical statue by the sands, he recognized to his ancient predecessor the same role, affixing the cartouche of Chefren.
 In the Temple of the valley, one clearly distinguishes the contrast between the gigantic monoliths and the coating structure of granite at more "human" dimension. Curiously, also in the Mortuary Temple of Menkaura blocks of limestone of 200 t alternate with insertions of mud and chalk bricks. Another controversial megalithic monument is the Osireion of Abido. Unique example of Dolmen structure, with enormous and anonymous parallelepipeds of granite up to 200 t, surrounded by a belt wall of sandstone 6 m thick, was situated deeply buried under the sediments when it was discovered in 1914. Despite it was sudden clear that it was a primeval temple, further it was considered the cenotaph of the pharaoh Seti I of the XIX dynasty, that constructed his temple in the vicinity. All this basing on sparse fragments which quote inscriptions of the 1300 BC. Yet the floor of the Osireion locates 15 m beneath the one of the temple, and its pillars are immersed in the water-bearing stratum.

The Osireion of Abido
Figure 17. The Osireion of Abido

In truth the entire Giza necropolis is object of a sensational misunderstanding. Conscious of the historic convention of the pharaohs to appropriate the sacred monuments of their predecessors, the perspective completely overturns. The internal walls of the great pyramids are all barren of inscriptions, bas-relieves, ritual formulas, as much as the chambers didn't ever lodge the mummy of any pharaoh (only in the pyramid of Menkaura a tomb of later time was found). This fact is explained, in the case of Cheops, calling in cause chimerical predators who would have stolen all the sepulchral treasure passing through an opening of 90 cm. Also the bare architecture of the mentioned monuments seems extraneous to the typical ornamental style of the Ancient Egypt. The inferior courses of the Second Pyramid and some Funeral Temples are referable to the same technique and constructive megalithical conception, on which one can read the stratification and the insertion of much lesser giant  architectural elements. A photo taken from the peak of the Pyramid of Chefren highlights that the inferior courses, with colossal blocks of granite, form a perfectly aligned edge, while the superior ones, with more modest blocks, were installed with worst precision.

The pyramid of Chefren
Figure 18. The pyramid of Chefren

Now, the pyramids of Meidum and Dashur appear us not like the prototype of the great ones, but like the attempt to imitate a perfect model already existing. The only written reference in the inside of the Great Pyramid was discovered in 1837 by the colonel Howard Vyse in one of the discharging chambers. They are the so-called marks of quarry, graffites which quote the cartouche of Cheops (resumed during the recent broadcast "Mysteries", on italian channel Rai2, dedicated to this matter). It is unbearable to think that the creator of the biggest tomb of history has left his own signature only in a lost corner, with painted signs which could be added in any epoch, maybe by Vyse himself. In fact the hieroglyphics were drawn inverted or with grammar errors, evident sign of falsification. All the archaeological proofs that remand to the IV dynasty are intrusive: stelas, bas-relieves with hieroglyphics, vases and statues were found always in the outside of the pyramids, in many funerary complexes (mastabe) nearby the giants of stone, constructed with simpler techniques compatible with the limited means of 4500 years ago. This is also worth for the three so-called small (or subsidiary) pyramids standing by the Great One, dedicated, it is reported, to the familiars of the sovereign.
On the contrary, a stela covered by hieroglyphics dating back to the XXI dynasty (I millennium BC) confirms all the suspects. The Inventory Stela, discovered by Mariette in the 1850, is a later copy of an original one erected by Cheops in order to celebrate his repairs to the Temple of Isis: he claims that a lot of time before his reign, the House of the Sphinx already existed next to the House of Isis, Mistress of the Pyramid (presumably the Great One), and that he made to construct his own pyramid and the one of his daughter Henutsen, at the feet of the Isis one. Then an authentic historical document asserts that the tomb of Cheops is one of the 3 modest smaller pyramids: a too scandalous fact for the Egyptologists who discard it as an opera of fiction, because too recent. This is obviously an unjustified pretext; remember that the stories of Erodotus, narrating facts happened 2000 years before, are seeped gold.
Having not a reliable method of radio-datation of the stones, lacking historical documents which confirm what the archaeologists has determined to be the truth, they confine themselves to attribute the age to the ancient settlings by the human organic remains, that can be dated basing on the time of decadence of the radioactive carbon (C14). According to Zahi Hawass, director of the archaeological Museum of  Cairo, the attribution based on the context is conclusive. But the fact that they found the tombs of thousands of workmen in the necropolis of Giza doesn't imply that these ones were the constructors of the pyramids, exactly as the inhabitants of Rome of the early Middle Ages didn't plan the Coliseum. The fact that their vertebral columns were deformed by the effort in moving big weights doesn't mean that they carried the 50 t blocks on the head.
Professor David Bowen of the Bureau of sciences of the Earth at the University of Wales elaborated a method of dating based on the radioactive isotope Chlore-36, which can furnish an estimate of the departed time since when a rock had exposed to the atmosphere for the first time. Preliminary tests, executed on the "blue stones" of Stonehenge in ’94, furnished an age greater than 14,000 years, against the 4000 commonly accepted. Waiting for a similar examination on the stones of Giza, to have an approximate estimate of the age of the site, we can place trust to the archaeoastronomy, applied with success indeed in the field of the European megalithical engineering(NOTE 4).

This young branch of archaeology takes care of the identification of astronomical alignments of the ancient monuments, reconstructing the configuration of the celestial vault as it appeared at the time of their construction. As explained by the engineer and Egyptologist Robert Bauval in The Orion Mystery, the relative position and the mass of the 3 great pyramids of Giza faithfully reflects the configuration and the magnitude of the 3 stars of the Orion belt. The perfect symmetry in the ideal projection of the celestial vault on the terrestrial surface is obtained in a date around 10450 BC, in coincidence with the minimal altitude on the horizon reached by Orion in his precessional motion.  Therefore the beginning of the Orion cycle would coincide with the so-called First Time (Tep Zepi) of the Egyptian tradition, in the astrological era of the Leo. In fact the Sphinx (the lion) is an equinoctial indicator precisely pointed to East, built to fix the epoch in which the Sun, in the spring equinox, rose in that constellation (between 8700 BC and 10800 BC). The intimate connection between the astronomy and the religious conception of the Egyptians is confirmed by the 4 oblique shafts which start from the chambers of the Great Pyramid, erroneously defined "of airing purpose". Those southerners aim, respectively, on the constellation of Orion (Osiris) and on the Sirius star (Isis, Sothis), but at the altitude in which they crossed the meridian of Giza in the 2450 BC, to indicate, in Bauval’s opinion, that the plan of Giza was begun in the XI millennium BC and completed by pharaohs. Professor A.N. Dos Santos, teacher of nuclear physics in Brazil, has a different opinion. His reasonings are founded on the functioning of the ancient sothiac Egyptian calendar, in which the solar year is 365 days long. The accumulated delay (approximately 1 day every 4 years) isn't recovered, and goes on equal footstep with the relocation of the Sirius star, for which, after a Sothiac Cycle of 1507 years (NOTE 5) the calendar returns to the point of departure and the Sothiac Year is celebrated. Sothiac years result 10410 BC (in excellent accord with Bauval), and, above all, 11917 BC, in which the calendar began, according to the calculations of Dos Santos. That would be confirmed by the astronomic alignment of the Great Pyramid with Vega, that 14,000 years ago was the polar star, and by the delay of 3-4 days accumulated in the dates of the solstices between the 12000 BC and the year zero.
Many archaeological sites with controversial dating in the new continent should be retro-dated too. The famous Lines of Nazca, in Peru, receive their name from a pre-Columbian culture lived until the early centuries of our age, yet there is no mean to know when and who traced those giant figures that, for proportions and kilometric alignments, required an incomprehensible topographic accuracy.
In Bolivia, at 3800 m of altitude, among the gigantic ruins of Tiahuanaco, we find the leftovers of a harbor anciently situated on the shores of the Titicaca lake (docks with blocks up to 440 t), and a great semidestroyed pyramid at terraces (originally 210 m of basis and 15 m of height, perfectly oriented to the North).  Today, oddly, the city is situated 30 meters higher than the actual line of coast, and its construction is fixed at around 500 BC, by the Inca civilization, a culture even barren of the wheel. Still once the dating based on the context of the settlings doesn't demonstrate anything and contradicts the logic, according to which a geological change of such proportions cannot be happened in short time, furthermore in the Christian era. Instead the archaeoastronomical dating of professor Arthur Posnansky, based on the obliquity of the ecliptic (NOTE 6), would shift the raising of the enormous stones back to 15000 BC . This datation coincides with different fragments of vases and with the observable friezes on the famous Gate of the Sun, which represents heads of elephants, toxodontes and other extinct mammals in South America between the 12000 BC and the 10000 BC. These observations, known since the ’30s, revisited by the italian writer Peter Kolosimo in the ’70s, are refused because they contradict the model of population of America, the rules of development of the man in the prehistory, and confirm the suspects of a big climatic and geological catastrophe which coincided with the end of the last glacial period, whose memory is imprinted in the myth of the Universal Flood, common to all the people on the Earth.

Far from the usual preconceptions about the prehistory of the man, the good sense suggests that populations like the dynastical Egyptians and the Incas settled in the proximities of the traces of a precedent civilization, scientifically and technologically advanced, to which they attributed a magic-religious meaning.
Both the reported verbal traditions by the Peruvian natives to the Spanish chroniclers of the XVI century and the historical Egyptians sources define the giants of stone as the opera of the civilizator Gods, of the lost Gold Age: a transfigured memory of the past, orally bequeathed from generation to generation. Again we meet the typical filter of the historic information: the Stone of Palermo (V dynasty, 2500 BC), the Papyrus of Turin and the List of the Kings of Abido, carved by Seti I (XIX dynasty, 1300 BC), the history of Egypt compiled by Manetho, priest of Eliopolis (III BC), the writings of the greek historian Erodotus (V BC) and Diodorus Siculus (I BC) are all considered reliable sources of the Egyptian dynastic history, while they are ignored when they speak about the long predinastic era, the First Time, lasted 30,000 or 40,000 years.

The list of the kings of Abido
Figure 19. Detail of  the list of kings from the temple of
Ramses II, at Abido (London, British Museum)

The archaeologists of the XX century mark a neat boundary between the invention of the writing, with Menes (first pharaoh of the history), and the preceding events, considered pure mythology. They present the chronology of the historic dynasties with a deceptive precision, when instead it is founded only on the probable count of generations (the famed Champollion in the ’30s fixed the beginning of the I dynasty to 5867 BC, today esteemed to 3100 BC). It's believed for certain that predinastic Egypt was populated exclusively by neolithic populations. Instead, incontestable archaeological proofs, till now opportunely ignored, demonstrate the contrary.
Is it logical that the culture of the Ancient Reign appeared suddenly, with the sophisticated astronomical-religious mythology, the complex hieroglyphic grammar already fully constitutes? How is it possible that the northamerican Indians Micmac used a hieroglyphic writing formed by tens of symbols belonging to the italic Egyptian writing (hieratic)? Professor Barry Fell, in America BC, in 1976, demonstrated that a great part of the ideograms coincide both in the drawing and in the meaning. The feeling is that various chapters of the ancient history lack. Some proofs of the forgotten past are located in known archaeological sites and, as you have seen, erroneously dated. But the major part of the testimonies must be still discovered, because nobody looks in right places. Some Egyptologists assert that the sands of Sahara still hide the major part of the Egyptian history; according to J.West searches along the shores of the ancient Nilus would be appropriate. At the end of the XIX century it was inconceivable to imagine a civilization preceding the Egyptian one, yet, following the indications of the Ancient Will and facing public derision of the colleagues, a group of archaeologists dug in Mesopotamia and discovered the remains of Sumer, another unexpected and revolutionary civilization that, in the IV millennium BC, was already socially and scientifically evolved, with a baggage of astronomical knowledge overcome only in XIX century (NOTE 7). This should teach us to examine the traditions and the mythology of the ancient cultures under a different perspective.
If anybody suspects that a prehistoric civilization lived during the last glaciation, we expect to find numerous settlings submerged by the increased level of the oceans, a fact that has punctually happened.  In 1968, archaeologist Manson Valentine carefully plotted a wall of 600 m, constituted by big polygonal blocks which lie at a depth of 7 m, in the open sea of Bimini in the Bahamas Islands. The examination of the C14 on the fossilized mangroves, would make it go back to 9-10,000 BC. On the deep surrounding backdrops geometric and pyramidal shapes were often observed by some aviators. In the proximity of the Canary Islands there is a pyramid at terraces. Kilometric rectilinear roads start from Yucatàn and Florida coasts and spread in the Atlantic. In a similar way different alignments of menhirs, on the west Europe coasts, continue into the sea, while on the bottom of Loch Ness lake a cromleck (circle of stones) was photographed.

Menhirs at Carnac (France)
Figure 20. Alignment of menhirs at Carnac (France)

It's countless the number of signallings of submerged harbors in the Indian and Pacific Ocean, in particular between Indonesia and the Oceania. Just in the 1997 an èquipe of Japanese oceanographers, coordinated by professor Kimura, discovered the ruins of an ancient civilization, in the waters of the archipelago Ryu Kyu, in the Chinese Sea (between Japan and Taiwan): an underwater camera filmed palaces, stairways and pyramids. Another problem is the exploration of places made inaccessible by the changed climatic conditions or by political ties.  A recent archaeological expedition discovered, in the southern Siberia, a group of pyramids at terraces. In some photos taken in 1975 by meteorological satellites which flied over the area of Pantiacolla, in Peru, a group of great pyramids hidden by the vegetation can be noted. In the plain of Qin Chuan and in the valley of Qin Lin, in the Shensi province, of central China, on an area of 2000 km2 there is a hundred of enormous terrain pyramids, some similar to the Teotihuacan one. Like the centroamerican ones, beneath the coverage of soil, they could conceal stone monuments. They were observed for the first time in the ’40s, but  no one has studied them until today.

Chinese pyramids
Figure 21. A view of Chinese pyramids
A Chinese pyramid
Figure 22. A Chinese pyramid

 In 1993 engineer Rudolf Gantenbrink discovered a new secret chamber in the inside of the Great Pyramid, accessible through the South channel of the Chamber of the Queen; at the same time, the seismic investigations of J.West’s team showed a wide chamber excavated under the Sphinx. Since then, no other official research has been set out, while West was moved away from Giza.
Archaeology is an empirical science still open to new discoveries. Perhaps it came the time to conform the theory to the experimental evidences, even if that means to admit a century of ingenuity and to damage the prestige of certain untouchable authority of the field.
Why only in a remote past the men enjoyed to move, without apparent effort, blocks of hundreds of tons? Let's remember the Menhir Brise in Brittany, of indefinable age, which, when it was intact, measured 23 m of height and it weighed more than 300 t; or the foundations of the Temple of Jupiter at Baalbek, in Liban, with a block of 900 t.

The menhir Brise
Figure 23. The menhir Brise, in Britain, 23 meters high and weighting over 300 t.

Why does astronomical sophisticated knowledge, very exuberant in respect to the necessities of the agriculture, emerge in cultures with scarce technical realizations? Commonly the seafaring civilizations are those that sharpen the astronomy for the purposes of the orientation and of the navigation. Neither the Sumerian, nor the Maya sailed, yet the latter ones (900 BC - 1000 AD), barren of suitable tools, elaborated a formidable calendar that esteemed the duration of the solar year in 365.2420 days (the more precise result of all times after that obtained by the european science), calculated the period of the lunar phases up to the seconds and it was set on the astronomical cycles of Venus in order to maintain itself precise in the millenniums. The vigesimal numerical system and the Mayan calendar were, besides, a legacy of the Olmecs, a population apparently not autochtonal (NOTE 8), installed in South- East of Mexico since 1500-1200 BC. Exquisite civilization like the Egyptian, the Sumerian and the Olmec one, suddenly arisen and then slowly declined, have the characters of a legacy of the past and not of a coherent progress. They are the survivals of a cultural evolution started millenniums before, which stopped at a certain point of the history.

This forgotten civilization left, on all the planet, its material (pyramids, megalithical architecture) and cultural (myths, common religious symbols) tracks; so it would be reductive to identify it with the platonic isle of Atlantis. It also left us in heritage a detailed cartography of the Earth: they are nautical maps that were drawn by medieval cartographers copying some documents, maybe originally preserved in the Library of Alexandria. Such charts reach a level of unexplainable precision, reporting the correct longitude (NOTE 9) of locations thousands of kilometers one far from another, plotting the presence of lands still unknown at the time of their compilation. In some maps one can observe ice-caps on the North Europe, the Sahara occupied by a green land rich of rivers and lakes, an edge of land in place of the Strait of Berings: morphological characters compatible with the climate of the Ice Age between 15,000 BC and 10,000 BC. But the most famous chart is the one of Piri Reis, which reports, among the others, the topography of the Anctartic peninsula free from the ices (as was demonstrated by a study of the US Air Force in 1960, commissioned by professor Charles Hapgood, author of Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings) and was a part of a planisphere obtained through a projection centered in the proximity of Cairo, that denotes the use of spherical trigonometry.

Mappa di Piri Reis
Figure 24. The map of Piri Reis

Comparison between the map of Piri Reis and the actual coastsComparison between the map of Piri Reis and the actual coasts

Figures 25-26. Comparison between the map of Piri Reis and the actual coast line

Recently, in the necropolis of Giza and at Abido, some boats were disinterred; it is thought they served for ritual purposes, ferrying the body of the pharaoh along the current of the Nilus.  Otherwise, experts in nautical archaeology, as Thor Heyerdahl and Cheryl Haldane, show that their high and tapering bows are ideal for face the navigation in open sea and that their design, very similar to that of the rush boats of the Titicaca Lake, reveals a high level of experience in this field.
The puzzle of our prehistory is undoubtedly incomplete, but many pieces go to their place, furnishing us a picture decidedly more logical and coherent than the officially consecrated one. We told that numerous datings converge in a period included between 12000 BC and 10000 BC, an epoch that saw sudden mass extinctions among mammals (remember the Siberian frozen mammoths) and the inversion of the magnetic terrestrial poles. Immediately after, around 9500 BC, the first experiments of agriculture started, at the same time and at the antipodes of the Earth: in proximities of the Titicaca Lake, on the Ethiopian highlands, and on the Thailand ones. The agricultural revolution is the first step toward the formation of the civilization. The eventuality that a planetary catastrophe truncated the development of a preceding human civilization doesn't seem so remote any more.  Additionally, this new perspective doesn't take off dignity to the still sophisticated historic cultures which attempted to perpetuate a knowledge and a form of advanced civilization with insufficient means. Then what does prevent the scientific community to take in consideration such hypothesis? Probably it is a prejudice consolidated by our industrial civilization, that considers itself the apex of the intellectual evolution of the man, seen as a linear and unbroken walk. This reassuring vision, remnant of the nineteenth-century positivism, postulates that the tools of the modern science hold the primacy in the level of comprehension of the universe. Instead, with the progress of our technology, the informations coming from a remote past acquire new meanings. The Texts of the Pyramids, that are the hieroglyphics which cover the walls of the funerary chamber of the pyramid of Unas (V dynasty), are the transcription of ancient predinastic traditions. According to G.Hancock, they seem the attempt to express complex technical and scientific images in a totally inappropriate idiom. In the XIX century, the first translators of the Mahabarata and of the Ramayana (epic poems that transcribed ancient oral traditions of India) had difficulty to understand the detailed descriptions of the flying crafts (Vimana) and of the different effects produced by weapons of the Gods: great explosions which instantly exterminate men and animals, paralysis, scald, contamination of food, columns of fire that get up in the sky, rain of sulphur (typical of the Bible). These narrations will be considered fanciful coincidences by whoever doesn't know that the city of Mohenjo Daro, in the valley of the Indus, was destroyed by a wave of unexplainable heat, incompatible with both a normal fire and natural known phenomenons. Analysis led by the CNR of Rome, in the ’70s, on behalf of David Davenport, expert in Sanskrit literature, demonstrated that pottery and stones were subject to a temperature greater than 1500 °C, sufficient to vitrify the walls of the city.

The ruins of Mohenjo Daro
Figure 27. The ruins of Mohenjo Daro (Pakistan)

The power of elaboration achieved by computers has allowed us to find new answers to ancient questions. Maurice Cotterel, engineer and programmer, thanks to a sophisticated computer simulation, reproduced the course of the magnetic fields of the Sun. Besides confirming the electromagnetic origin of the phenomenon of the solar spots, he discovered various regular cycles in the radiation arriving on the Earth (among which a cycle of 28 days and a big cycle of 1,366,040 days), supposing to have found the cause of the periodic inversion of the geomagnetical poles. His deductions induce us to reconsider the authentic origin of astrology, the degenerate memory of what ancient people knew about the influence of electromagnetic fields on terrestrial biology:  each monthly period (zodiacal sign) is characterized by the radiation of solar wind with prevalence of positive ions (signs of fire and air) or negative ions (signs of earth and water). Additionally he underlined the connection between the cycle of the solar spots and the Mayan calendar that, through an intricate numeric system, calculated the so-called Long Reckoning of 1,366,560 days. We must remember the maniacal obsession that the pre-Columbian mexican civilizations had for the elapsing of time, and their conception of the history of humanity, cyclically destroyed by natural catastrophes. Similar considerations are also worth for other disciplines that, probably, are the legacy of a forgotten science, based on a straighter relation between the senses and the energies of the environment. The traditional Chinese medicine (like the acupuncture), the Feng-Shui (the art of disposing the habitations in harmony with the environment), the dowsing are examples of ancient knowledge, contaminated in millenniums by esoteric rituals.
In accordance with C.Wilson a possible key of interpreting the mysteries of the past is just in the magic-spiritual relation developed by our ancestors with the environment. Recent investigations highlight the dual nature of the human brain. Wilson believes that, since when the writing was invented, men lived an alienated existence, governed at conscious level by the cerebral left hemisphere (analytical and rational faculties), and at subconscious level by the right hemisphere (artistic and intuitive faculties). On the contrary the man of prehistory, cultivating the capacities of memory and an intuitive approach to the reality, enjoyed of an harmonic fusion between the two hemispheres, ideal for developing extra-sensorial abilities of the mind, like telepathy, telekinesis, remote vision and the collective unconscious (the one that a shaman induces in his tribe through magical rites). Despite the heavy disinformation on these subjects, we should be aware that the ESP phenomenons, categorically refused by the official science for the absence of a theoretical explanation, has been examined with success by the military apparatus and by the intelligence services, much more interested in practical results.

The idea of Wilson is suggestive and answers to a fundamental question that is the only justified objection moved to the supporters of the new theories: why only the products of forgotten technology have been found (e.g.: the polished stones) and we never found the tools (e.g.: saws and drills)? The scenery is much more complex indeed. Different tools of the past were not recognized at the moment of their discovery and other finds disappeared or are considered false. Two famous examples suffice.
The batteries of Baghdad. They are vases of baked clay 2000 years old, containing a cylinder of copper and a rod of iron plunged into the asphalt. They were classified as objects of cult until they were noticed by Wilhelm Konig, in the ’30s. Inserting an electrolytic solution (copper sulphate) the device produced electric current.
The geode of Coso. In the homonymous place of California, in the ’60s, a sphere crusted of fossil shells came to the light. A x-ray put in evidence the interior, formed by a thin soul of metal, surrounded by a circular section of a very hard ceramic material (such to consume the diamond saw used for the clipping), with an hexagonal hood. An incredible example of unknown technology of 500,000 years ago.
The so-called paleoastronautic counts tens of these astonishing anomalies of prehistory.  Therefore, even if proofs exist, they are simply ignored or who proposes them is discredited. At this point, it is necessary to wonder if the delay of 150 years of the theory with respect to the objective proofs is physiological or pathological.
It is certainly a displeasing cultural filter mechanism, recently put in light by researcher Michael Cremo. In his fundamental treaty Forbidden Archaeology, he demonstrates the groundlessness of the evolutionary line of Homo Sapiens, whose fossils have been found, with certainty, in geological ages up to 50 million of years ago. Yet the experimental evidences that prove it have been hidden or discredited for more than a century, while anonymous authorities have the power to decide which researches must be publicized on scientific magazines in a way that only the "pleasant" theories gain notoriety. The search of M. Cremo reveals us only the summit of the iceberg:  one can only guess how many finds were completely suppressed. And is all of this simply due to a vicious circle started by the vertexes of the academic learning? Maybe, instead, one can expressly speak of a designed plan of deceit against public opinion. But at which purpose? It is known  that today world economy and politics are in the hands of few groups of power (the military and financial lobbies, the corporations, the petrochemical industries) which, in their interest, influence and direct the operate of the governments, controlling the information that can reach the public. The vertexes of the political and economical power, tied with double wire to the military and scientific organisms, are responsible of manipulation of the news through the news media, suppression of innovative technologies that, for example, would make oil obsolete. Their objective is to maintain indefinitely a social and economic order advantageous for them. The scientific search goes, forcedly, toward the direction indicated by financiers. It is not a coincidence that private american foundations have seriously influenced the searches on the evolution of the man at the beginning of the XX century, selectively sponsoring the neo-darwinian theories. Isn’t it plausible that the knowledge of our predecessors opens the door toward a certain type of "inconvenient" truths to which the world social structure is not ready?
There could be revolutionary technologies, whose employment would endanger the world economical establishment. As usual, the local traditions furnish useful signs. The ancestors of the native bolivians bequeathed the tradition according to which the buildings of Tiahuanaco were realized in brief time, raising and carrying the stones in air at the sound of a trumpet. In the XV century, the Egyptian historian Ahmed Al-Maqrizi reported that to the workmen of the pyramids it sufficed to lean a sheet covered with magic writing above a block of stone to see it cover a distance of 26 km. The temptation to think to anti-gravity devices is strong. In 1996 some researchers of the university of Tampere in Finland declared they accidentally obtained an effect of real loss of weight of objects, while they were studying the behavior of a super-conductor. The news, appeared on the British Sunday Telegraph, doesn't seem to have received much attention; this fits perfectly in the system of sabotage of the alternative energies, that has struck, for example, the cold fusion of Martin Fleischmann or the hydrogen engine.
Equally destabilizing informations would be the discovery of natural phenomenons still little known, that could be able to  periodically put in danger the life on the Earth (NOTE 10), or the confirmation of the existence of extraterrestrial intelligences (NOTE 11). Among forbidden finds, M. Cremo counts different artificial objects, fossils and footprints of man discovered in stratums of the Carboniferous period, and other of the Pre-Cambrian one, up to 2.8 milliards years ago. These artifacts would put in crisis the theories on the random origin and development of life on Earth (NOTE 12). Such news don’t achieve the public, while an èlite of researchers conducts reserved researches for secret bureaus.
Ancient buildings made unrecognizable by the vegetation have been often found thanks to satellite trackings. Is it plausible that a structure as magnificent and visible as the Great White Pyramid of Xian in China (a colossus of 300 m of height) accidentally escaped the sensors? Only today, 50 years after the discovery, its existence is made known. Maybe the archaeological revolution could be the first footstep toward the revelation of a true hidden reality.

The Great White Pyramid of Xian
Figure 28. The Great White Pyramid of Xian (China)

NOTE 1: On this matter a film on Ancient Egypt, transmitted by Quark (an italian broadcast of scientific divulgation) is much more optimistic: 6 men would be sufficient to carry a block of 6 t on a 10% sloping ramp. That is to say, each man can pull, for several kilometers, a familiar car with crawling braked wheels. BACK
NOTE 2: In fact, because of the oscillation of the Earth’s axis (which describes a cone in the sky every 26000 years), after about 2160 years, the Sun rises at the  Spring equinox in a different constellation. When the Sun rises in the constellation where it set, it has crossed half of the zodiacal bend, so 13000 years passed. Then, at the time of Herodotus, one and half precessional cycle, equivalent to 39000 years, would be completed. BACK
NOTE 3: In this occasion the architects introduce the device of the discharging chambers for the first time: 7 rooms placed above the ceiling, which had the function of lightening the bending on the structure. How did they calculate the proper dimension at the first plan? BACK
NOTE 4: The astronomer C.A. Newham, in the ’60s, confirmed that the circle of stones of Stonehenge constitutes a sophisticated solar calendar, that functions as a sundial. The makers of the numerous alignments, circles and ellipses of stones situated in England and in Brittany had solid notions of geometry and they knew the p, 3000 years before Euclid and Pitagora. BACK
NOTE 5: The egyptian New Year's Day falls at dawn of the day in which Sirius rises immediately before the Sun. The interval between two following heliacal rising of Sirius is exactly 365.25 days, therefore the gradual shifting (0.25 days/ year) of the point in which the star rises scans, like a clock, the phase angle of the calendar in respect to the seasons.  This explains the veneration of the Egyptians for Sirius. Approximately, the rotation is completed in 365/0.25= 1460 years. In reality the exact fraction of missed year is 0.2422, for which the true cycle of rotation is 365/0.2422= 1507 years. BACK
NOTE 6: Besides an oscillating movement, that causes the precession, the Earth’s axis tilts differently in respect to the plane of the orbit. The  angle formed by the plane of the ecliptic (orbital plane) with the plane of the celestial equator (prolongation of the terrestrial equator, integral with the axis) is said obliquity of the ecliptic and varies, regularly, between 21°55’ and 24°20’ in a period of about 41000 years. Today the obliquity is 23°27’. The calculations of Posnansky, checked by various astronomers, demonstrate that the monuments of Tiahuanaco were raised when it was 23°8’48’’, about 17000 years ago. BACK
NOTE 7: As Zecharia Sitchin, expert of oriental civilizations recently rediscovered, the Sumerians possessed a complex spherical astronomy (that involves the knowledge of the roundness of the Earth), they distinguished in a detailed way the fixed stars from the planets and from other celestial phenomenons, like meteors and comets, they had precise tables of the ephemerides and they regularly predicted the eclipses. Additionally they possessed an astonishing cosmology that describes the primeval crash between the Earth and an unknown planet (really happened according to latest theories). Moreover they knew all the planets of the solar system up to Pluto, and they defined the Big Year of 25920 years (an exceptional estimate of the cycle of precession). All that should be the result of centuries of observation of the sky with adequate instruments. Some researchers affirm that the Sumerian calendar started around 11600 BC. BACK
NOTE 8:  In their artistic representations, among which the famous basalt heads, one decidedly distinguishes both negroid and bearded caucasian somatic draws (the Amerinds are hairless). On ceramics and stelas the researchers of ancient Chinese Han Ping Chen and Mike Xu discovered various figures identical to Chinese ideograms of 1200 BC. The Olmecs already possessed a high technical level in the realization of sophisticated hydraulic operas and pyramids. BACK
NOTE 9: Before the XVIII century, chronometers enough precise to calculate exactly the longitude during the navigation and the topographical plots of the coasts didn't exist. BACK
NOTE 10: For example the inversion of the magnetic poles. During such a phenomenon, the living beings would be undefended from the cosmic radiation at high energy, commonly shielded by the field. Think that a clear scientific theory that explains the existence of the magnetic terrestrial field hasn't still been formulated. BACK
NOTE 11: The UFO phenomenon is too vast and complex for facing it in a note. Being of strict competence of the military authorities, for evident implications on national safety, it has always been object of shelving and disinformation. It is enough to know that histories of sighting non-identified flying objects are not a peculiarity of the last 50 years, but are certified in the Middle Ages, in Roman age, and, perhaps, in several passages of the Bible. BACK
NOTE 12: Today scientists don't have any idea on how the organic composts of the so-called "primordial broth" organized "naturally" to form the first cell, transgressing the III Principle of Thermodynamic. Some, furthermore, think that accidental mutations of the genetic patrimony might not be the only responsible in the evolution of terrestrial life, facing the mechanistic dominant vision. BACK

ing. Quagliati Mauro, e-mail:

Robert Bauval-Adrian Gilbert, The Orion mystery, Heinemann, 1994.
Maurice Cotterel-Adrian Gilbert, Mayan prophecies, Element, 1995.
Michael Cremo-Richard Thompson, Forbidden Archaeology, Govardhan Hill, 1994.
Georges Goyon, Il segreto delle grandi piramidi [The secret of the Great Pyramids],
                           Newton  Compton, 1980.
Graham Hancock, Fingerprints of the Gods, Heinemann, 1995.
Francis Hitching, The world Atlas of Mysteries, Francis Hitching, 1978.
Kurt Mendelssohn, L’enigma delle piramidi [The Enigma of the pyramids], Mondadori, 1976.
Roberto Pinotti, Angeli, dei, astronavi [Angels, Gods, Starships], Mondadori, 1991.
Zecharia Sitchin, The Twelfth Planet, Stein and Day Publishers, 1976.
Colin Wilson, From Atlantis to the Sphinx, Virgin Books, 1996.

Amateur Astronomy & Earth Sciences, issue 9, August/September 1996.
Egypt, Discovery Channel Video, 1994.


rivoluzione archeologica, Egitto, geode di Coso, piramidi, archeologia proibita, paleoastronautica, archeoastronomia, misteri dell'Egitto, Cheope, enigmi, costruzione delle piramidi, labirinto, gruppo MMM, Atlantide, Sfinge,archeological revolution, Egypt, geode of Coso, pyramids, forbidden archeology, paleoastronautic, archeoastronomy, mysteries of Egypt, Cheops, enigmas, construction of the pyramids, labyrinth, MMM Group, Atlantis, Sphinx,Michael Cremo, Robert Bauval, Christopher Dunn, Robert Schoch, Georges Goyon, Kurt Mendelssohn, Flinders Petrie, Colin Wilson, Graham Hancock, Thomas Dobecki, Gaston Maspero, Auguste Mariette, Howard Vyse,Zahi Hawass, David Bowen, Dos Santos, Arthur Posnansky, Peter Kolosimo, Barry Fell, Kimura, Rudolf Gantenbrink, Charles Hapgood, Thor Heyerdahl, Cheryl Haldane, David Davenport, Maurice Cotterel, Ahmed Al-Maqrizi,Martin Fleischmann, Newham, Zecharia Sitchin, Han Ping Chen, Mike Xu, John West,Cheope, Cheops, Chefren, Micerino, Menkaura,menhir, Machu Picchu, Mohenjo Daro, Sacsahuaman, Osireion,Abido, piramide bianca, white pyramid, calendario Maya, Mayan calendar, vimana, Mahabarata, Ramayana, Pantiacolla, monoliti, monoliths, Oak island, Oak island treasure, tesoro di Oak island

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